【整理】git commit语法/用法/帮助文件

通过:

git help commit

可以去查看到git commit的语法的确切含义。

此处主要是去搞清楚对应的-a和-m的含义:

GIT-COMMIT(1)                                                           Git Manual                                                           GIT-COMMIT(1)

NAME
       git-commit - Record changes to the repository

SYNOPSIS
       git commit [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
                  [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
                  [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
                  [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
                  [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
                  [-i | -o] [--] [<file>...]

DESCRIPTION
       Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along with a log message from the user describing the changes.

       The content to be added can be specified in several ways:

        1. by using git add to incrementally "add" changes to the index before using the commit command (Note: even modified files must be "added");

        2. by using git rm to remove files from the working tree and the index, again before using the commit command;

        3. by listing files as arguments to the commit command, in which case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead record the
           current content of the listed files (which must already be known to git);

        4. by using the -a switch with the commit command to automatically "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already listed in
           the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the actual commit;

        5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the commit command to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit,
           before finalizing the operation. See the `Interactive Mode` section of git-add(1) to learn how to operate these modes.

       The --dry-run option can be used to obtain a summary of what is included by any of the above for the next commit by giving the same set of
       parameters (options and paths).

       If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after that, you can recover from it with git reset.

OPTIONS
       -a, --all
           Tell the command to automatically stage files that have been modified and deleted, but new files you have not told git about are not affected.

       -p, --patch
           Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose which changes to commit. See git-add(1) for details.

       -C <commit>, --reuse-message=<commit>
           Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message and the authorship information (including the timestamp) when creating the commit.

       -c <commit>, --reedit-message=<commit>
           Like -C, but with -c the editor is invoked, so that the user can further edit the commit message.

       --fixup=<commit>
           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message will be the subject line from the specified commit with a
           prefix of "fixup! ". See git-rebase(1) for details.

       --squash=<commit>
           Construct a commit message for use with rebase --autosquash. The commit message subject line is taken from the specified commit with a prefix
           of "squash! ". Can be used with additional commit message options (-m/-c/-C/-F). See git-rebase(1) for details.

       --reset-author
           When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the resulting commit
           now belongs of the committer. This also renews the author timestamp.

       --short
           When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

       --porcelain
           When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready format. See git-status(1) for details. Implies --dry-run.

       -z
           When showing short or porcelain status output, terminate entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no format is given, implies
           the --porcelain output format.

       -F <file>, --file=<file>
           Take the commit message from the given file. Use - to read the message from the standard input.

       --author=<author>
           Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the standard A U Thor <author@example.com[1]> format. Otherwise <author> is
           assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>); the commit
           author is then copied from the first such commit found.

       --date=<date>
           Override the author date used in the commit.

       -m <msg>, --message=<msg>
           Use the given <msg> as the commit message.

       -t <file>, --template=<file>
           Use the contents of the given file as the initial version of the commit message. The editor is invoked and you can make subsequent changes. If
           a message is specified using the -m or -F options, this option has no effect. This overrides the commit.template configuration variable.

       -s, --signoff
           Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit log message.

       -n, --no-verify
           This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks. See also githooks(5).

       --allow-empty
           Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you from making such a
           commit. This option bypasses the safety, and is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.

       --allow-empty-message
           Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an empty commit
           message without using plumbing commands like git-commit-tree(1).

       --cleanup=<mode>
           This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up. The <mode> can be one of verbatim, whitespace, strip, and default. The default mode will
           strip leading and trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
           removed. The verbatim mode does not change message at all, whitespace removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines and strip removes both
           whitespace and commentary.

       -e, --edit
           The message taken from file with -F, command line with -m, and from file with -C are usually used as the commit log message unmodified. This
           option lets you further edit the message taken from these sources.

       --amend
           Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual (this includes the
           usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the tip of the current branch. The commit you
           create replaces the current tip — if it was a merge, it will have the parents of the current tip as parents — so the current top commit is
           discarded.

           It is a rough equivalent for:

                       $ git reset --soft HEAD^
                       $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
                       $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD

           but can be used to amend a merge commit.

           You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING FROM
           UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase(1).)

       -i, --include
           Before making a commit out of staged contents so far, stage the contents of paths given on the command line as well. This is usually not what
           you want unless you are concluding a conflicted merge.

       -o, --only
           Make a commit only from the paths specified on the command line, disregarding any contents that have been staged so far. This is the default
           mode of operation of git commit if any paths are given on the command line, in which case this option can be omitted. If this option is
           specified together with --amend, then no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend the last commit without committing changes that
           have already been staged.

       -u[<mode>], --untracked-files[=<mode>]
           Show untracked files.

           The mode parameter is optional (defaults to all), and is used to specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the default is
           normal, i.e. show untracked files and directories.

           The possible options are:

           ·    no - Show no untracked files

           ·    normal - Shows untracked files and directories

           ·    all - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.

               The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles configuration variable documented in git-config(1).

       -v, --verbose
           Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what would be committed at the bottom of the commit message template. Note that this diff output
           doesn’t have its lines prefixed with #.

       -q, --quiet



   

 

【总结】

git功能还真多,用法还真复杂。。



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