【整理】Linux命令patch的用法

【背景】

折腾:

【已解决】打patch补丁时出错:Reversed (or previously applied) patch detected! Assume -R? [n]

期间,以为搞懂了patch,实际上对patch的用法还不是很清楚。

此处想要彻底搞清楚-R的含义。

【折腾过程】

1.参看help:

CLi@PC-CLI-1 ~/develop/buildroot/diff_patch
$ patch --help
Usage: patch [OPTION]... [ORIGFILE [PATCHFILE]]

Input options:

  -p NUM  --strip=NUM  Strip NUM leading components from file names.
  -F LINES  --fuzz LINES  Set the fuzz factor to LINES for inexact matching.
  -l  --ignore-whitespace  Ignore white space changes between patch and input.

  -c  --context  Interpret the patch as a context difference.
  -e  --ed  Interpret the patch as an ed script.
  -n  --normal  Interpret the patch as a normal difference.
  -u  --unified  Interpret the patch as a unified difference.

  -N  --forward  Ignore patches that appear to be reversed or already applied.
  -R  --reverse  Assume patches were created with old and new files swapped.

  -i PATCHFILE  --input=PATCHFILE  Read patch from PATCHFILE instead of stdin.

Output options:

  -o FILE  --output=FILE  Output patched files to FILE.
  -r FILE  --reject-file=FILE  Output rejects to FILE.

  -D NAME  --ifdef=NAME  Make merged if-then-else output using NAME.
  -m  --merge  Merge using conflict markers instead of creating reject files.
  -E  --remove-empty-files  Remove output files that are empty after patching.

  -Z  --set-utc  Set times of patched files, assuming diff uses UTC (GMT).
  -T  --set-time  Likewise, assuming local time.

  --quoting-style=WORD   output file names using quoting style WORD.
    Valid WORDs are: literal, shell, shell-always, c, escape.
    Default is taken from QUOTING_STYLE env variable, or 'shell' if unset.

Backup and version control options:

  -b  --backup  Back up the original contents of each file.
  --backup-if-mismatch  Back up if the patch does not match exactly.
  --no-backup-if-mismatch  Back up mismatches only if otherwise requested.

  -V STYLE  --version-control=STYLE  Use STYLE version control.
        STYLE is either 'simple', 'numbered', or 'existing'.
  -B PREFIX  --prefix=PREFIX  Prepend PREFIX to backup file names.
  -Y PREFIX  --basename-prefix=PREFIX  Prepend PREFIX to backup file basenames.
  -z SUFFIX  --suffix=SUFFIX  Append SUFFIX to backup file names.

  -g NUM  --get=NUM  Get files from RCS etc. if positive; ask if negative.

Miscellaneous options:

  -t  --batch  Ask no questions; skip bad-Prereq patches; assume reversed.
  -f  --force  Like -t, but ignore bad-Prereq patches, and assume unreversed.
  -s  --quiet  --silent  Work silently unless an error occurs.
  --verbose  Output extra information about the work being done.
  --dry-run  Do not actually change any files; just print what would happen.
  --posix  Conform to the POSIX standard.

  -d DIR  --directory=DIR  Change the working directory to DIR first.
  --reject-format=FORMAT  Create 'context' or 'unified' rejects.
  --binary  Read and write data in binary mode.
  --read-only=BEHAVIOR  How to handle read-only input files: 'ignore' that they
                        are read-only, 'warn' (default), or 'fail'.

  -v  --version  Output version info.
  --help  Output this help.

Report bugs to <bug-patch@gnu.org>.

CLi@PC-CLI-1 ~/develop/buildroot/diff_patch
$

 

【总结】

可以看出:

  • -R:reverse,表示撤回打补丁,还原内容
    • 和之前的猜测,也是一致的。


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