详解crifan的Python库:crifanLib.py

版本:v1.1

Crifan Li

摘要

本文主要介绍了我自己crifan的Python函数库crifanLib.py,包括解释crifanLib.py由来,以及其中各种函数的功能和用法示例。

[提示] 本文提供多种格式供:
在线阅读 HTML HTMLs PDF CHM TXT RTF WEBHELP
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HTML版本的在线地址为:

http://www.crifan.com/files/doc/docbook/crifanlib_python/release/html/crifanlib_python.html

有任何意见,建议,提交bug等,都欢迎去讨论组发帖讨论:

http://www.crifan.com/bbs/categories/crifanlib_python/

2013-09-29

修订历史
修订 1.1 2013-09-29 crl
  1. 把crifanLib.py从Python语言总结中整理出来单独成此book
  2. 更新xml:id

目录

1. crifanLib.py简介
1.1. 什么是crifanLib.py
1.2. 到哪里可以下载到crifanLib.py
2. crifanLib.py函数及用法详解
2.1. 与时间(time,datetime等)有关的函数
2.1.1. 当前时间转换为时间戳:getCurTimestamp
2.1.2. 将时间戳转换为时间变量:timestampToDatetime
2.1.3. 计算某段代码执行所消耗的时间:calcTimeStart,calcTimeEnd
2.1.4. 将本地GMT8时间转换为GMT标准时间:convertLocalToGmt
2.2. 和字符串(str,unicode等)处理有关的函数
2.2.1. 从绝对路径中提取出文件名:extractFilename
2.2.2. 将实体定义替换为字符:repUniNumEntToChar
2.2.3. 生成全路径的URL地址:genFullUrl
2.2.4. 判断两个URL地址是否相似:urlIsSimilar
2.2.5. 判断一个Url地址是否和一个Url地址列表中的某个Url地址相似:findSimilarUrl
2.2.6. 去除非单词(non-word)的字符:removeNonWordChar
2.2.7. 去除控制字符:removeCtlChr
2.2.8. 将字符实体替换为Unicode数字实体:replaceStrEntToNumEnt
2.2.9. 将xxx=yyy转换为元祖(tuple)变量:convertToTupleVal
2.2.10. 去除列表(List)中的空值:removeEmptyInList
2.2.11. 列表去重(去除重复的值):uniqueList
2.2.12. 过滤列表(去除在b中出现的a中的某值):filterList
2.2.13. 生成随机数的字符串:randDigitsStr
2.2.14. 将元组列表转换为字典变量:tupleListToDict
2.3. 文件(file等)方面的函数
2.3.1. 将二进制数据存为文件:saveBinDataToFile
2.4. 网络方面的函数
2.4.1. 检查/判断/校验网络上某个文件是否有效:isFileValid
2.4.2. 下载网络上某个文件:downloadFile
2.4.3. (不用urlretrieve)手动从网络上下载单个文件:manuallyDownloadFile
2.4.4. 获得Url地址的响应:getUrlResponse
2.4.5. 获得Url返回的HTML网页(源码)内容:getUrlRespHtml
2.4.6. 检查(所返回的)cookieJar中,是否所有的cookie都存在:checkAllCookiesExist
2.5. 字符编码相关的函数
2.5.1. 判断字符串是否只包含ASCII字符:strIsAscii
2.5.2. 获得(最有可能的)字符串的字符编码类型:getStrPossibleCharset
2.6. 语言翻译方面的函数
2.6.1. 翻译(中文)字符串(为英文字符串):translateString
2.6.2. 将中文字符串翻译为英文字符串:transZhcnToEn
2.7. Beautifulsoup相关的函数
2.7.1. 从soup的Contents中移除某个(带某种属性的)标签: removeSoupContentsTagAttr
2.7.2. 查找contents中第一个NavigableString: findFirstNavigableString
2.7.3. 将soup的contents转换为Unicode字符串: soupContentsToUnicode
参考书目

范例清单

2.1. getCurTimestamp使用范例
2.2. timestampToDatetime使用范例
2.3. calcTimeStart和calcTimeEnd的使用范例
2.4. convertLocalToGmt的使用范例
2.5. extractFilename的使用范例
2.6. repUniNumEntToChar的使用范例
2.7. genFullUrl的使用范例
2.8. urlIsSimilar的使用范例
2.9. findSimilarUrl的使用范例
2.10. removeNonWordChar的使用范例
2.11. removeCtlChr的使用范例
2.12. replaceStrEntToNumEnt的使用范例
2.13. convertToTupleVal的使用范例
2.14. removeEmptyInList的使用范例
2.15. uniqueList的使用范例
2.16. filterList的使用范例
2.17. randDigitsStr 的使用范例
2.18. tupleListToDict 的使用范例
2.19. saveBinDataToFile的使用范例
2.20. isFileValid的使用范例
2.21. downloadFile的使用范例
2.22. manuallyDownloadFile的使用范例
2.23. getUrlResponse的使用范例
2.24. getUrlRespHtml的使用范例:不带额外参数
2.25. getUrlRespHtml的使用范例:带额外参数
2.26. checkAllCookiesExist的使用范例
2.27. strIsAscii的使用范例
2.28. getStrPossibleCharset的使用范例
2.29. translateString的使用范例
2.30. transZhcnToEn的使用范例
2.31. removeSoupContentsTagAttr 的使用范例
2.32. soupContentsToUnicode 的使用范例

第 1 章 crifanLib.py简介

1.1. 什么是crifanLib.py

之前在折腾将(新版)百度空间,网易163,新浪sina,QQ空间,人人网,CSDN,搜狐Sohu,博客大巴Blogbus,天涯博客,点点轻博客等博客搬家到WordPress的过程中,先后遇到很多个问题,然后基本上也都自己解决了。对应的也写了相应的代码和函数。

后来就把其中比较常用或通用的功能,整理提取出来,放到一个单独的文件中,即crifanLib.py。

1.2. 到哪里可以下载到crifanLib.py

该文件,之前是以帖子的方式贴出来的:crifan的Python库:crifanLib.py

现在已放到google code中的crifanLib中的crifanLib.py,并且以后会同步保持最新版本的。

第 2 章 crifanLib.py函数及用法详解

目录

2.1. 与时间(time,datetime等)有关的函数
2.1.1. 当前时间转换为时间戳:getCurTimestamp
2.1.2. 将时间戳转换为时间变量:timestampToDatetime
2.1.3. 计算某段代码执行所消耗的时间:calcTimeStart,calcTimeEnd
2.1.4. 将本地GMT8时间转换为GMT标准时间:convertLocalToGmt
2.2. 和字符串(str,unicode等)处理有关的函数
2.2.1. 从绝对路径中提取出文件名:extractFilename
2.2.2. 将实体定义替换为字符:repUniNumEntToChar
2.2.3. 生成全路径的URL地址:genFullUrl
2.2.4. 判断两个URL地址是否相似:urlIsSimilar
2.2.5. 判断一个Url地址是否和一个Url地址列表中的某个Url地址相似:findSimilarUrl
2.2.6. 去除非单词(non-word)的字符:removeNonWordChar
2.2.7. 去除控制字符:removeCtlChr
2.2.8. 将字符实体替换为Unicode数字实体:replaceStrEntToNumEnt
2.2.9. 将xxx=yyy转换为元祖(tuple)变量:convertToTupleVal
2.2.10. 去除列表(List)中的空值:removeEmptyInList
2.2.11. 列表去重(去除重复的值):uniqueList
2.2.12. 过滤列表(去除在b中出现的a中的某值):filterList
2.2.13. 生成随机数的字符串:randDigitsStr
2.2.14. 将元组列表转换为字典变量:tupleListToDict
2.3. 文件(file等)方面的函数
2.3.1. 将二进制数据存为文件:saveBinDataToFile
2.4. 网络方面的函数
2.4.1. 检查/判断/校验网络上某个文件是否有效:isFileValid
2.4.2. 下载网络上某个文件:downloadFile
2.4.3. (不用urlretrieve)手动从网络上下载单个文件:manuallyDownloadFile
2.4.4. 获得Url地址的响应:getUrlResponse
2.4.5. 获得Url返回的HTML网页(源码)内容:getUrlRespHtml
2.4.6. 检查(所返回的)cookieJar中,是否所有的cookie都存在:checkAllCookiesExist
2.5. 字符编码相关的函数
2.5.1. 判断字符串是否只包含ASCII字符:strIsAscii
2.5.2. 获得(最有可能的)字符串的字符编码类型:getStrPossibleCharset
2.6. 语言翻译方面的函数
2.6.1. 翻译(中文)字符串(为英文字符串):translateString
2.6.2. 将中文字符串翻译为英文字符串:transZhcnToEn
2.7. Beautifulsoup相关的函数
2.7.1. 从soup的Contents中移除某个(带某种属性的)标签: removeSoupContentsTagAttr
2.7.2. 查找contents中第一个NavigableString: findFirstNavigableString
2.7.3. 将soup的contents转换为Unicode字符串: soupContentsToUnicode

下面把所有的函数的用法,都简单解释一下:

[注意] crifanLib.py所包含的库

如果你在使用这些函数的遇到说某某函数,类等找不到,那很可能是没有导入对应的库。

所以在介绍之前,先贴出,目前crifanLib.py中所导入的一些库和函数:

import os;
import re;
import sys;
import time;
import chardet;
import urllib;
import urllib2;
from datetime import datetime,timedelta;
from BeautifulSoup import BeautifulSoup,Tag,CData;
import logging;
#import htmlentitydefs;
import struct;
import zlib;

# from PIL import Image;
# from operator import itemgetter;
    

2.1. 与时间(time,datetime等)有关的函数

2.1.1. 当前时间转换为时间戳:getCurTimestamp

from datetime import datetime,timedelta;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# get current time's timestamp
def getCurTimestamp() :
    return datetimeToTimestamp(datetime.now());

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# convert datetime value to timestamp
# from "2006-06-01 00:00:00" to 1149091200
def datetimeToTimestamp(datetimeVal) :
    return int(time.mktime(datetimeVal.timetuple()));
        

例 2.1. getCurTimestamp使用范例

curTimestamp = getCurTimestamp();
jsonp = "jsonp" + str(curTimestamp);
            

2.1.2. 将时间戳转换为时间变量:timestampToDatetime

from datetime import datetime,timedelta;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# convert timestamp to datetime value
# from 1149091200 to "2006-06-01 00:00:00"
def timestampToDatetime(timestamp) :
    #print "type(timestamp)=",type(timestamp);
    #print "timestamp=",timestamp;
    #timestamp = int(timestamp);
    timestamp = float(timestamp);
    return datetime.fromtimestamp(timestamp);
        

例 2.2. timestampToDatetime使用范例

createtimeFloat = float(createtimeMillisecond)/1000;
localTime = timestampToDatetime(createtimeFloat);
            

2.1.3. 计算某段代码执行所消耗的时间:calcTimeStart,calcTimeEnd

import time;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#init for calculate elapsed time 
def calcTimeStart(uniqueKey) :
    global gVal

    gVal['calTimeKeyDict'][uniqueKey] = time.time();
    return

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# to get elapsed time, before call this, should use calcTimeStart to init
def calcTimeEnd(uniqueKey) :
    global gVal

    return time.time() - gVal['calTimeKeyDict'][uniqueKey];
        

例 2.3. calcTimeStart和calcTimeEnd的使用范例

calcTimeStart("export_head");
exportHead(blogInfoDic);
gVal['statInfoDict']['exportHeadTime'] = calcTimeEnd("export_head");
            

2.1.4. 将本地GMT8时间转换为GMT标准时间:convertLocalToGmt

from datetime import datetime,timedelta;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# convert local GMT8 to GMT time
# note: input should be 'datetime' type, not 'time' type
def convertLocalToGmt(localTime) :
    return localTime - timedelta(hours=8);
        

例 2.4. convertLocalToGmt的使用范例

gmtTime = convertLocalToGmt(parsedLocalTime);
            

2.2. 和字符串(str,unicode等)处理有关的函数

2.2.1. 从绝对路径中提取出文件名:extractFilename

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# got python script self file name
# extract out xxx from:
# D:\yyy\zzz\xxx.py
# xxx.py
def extractFilename(inputStr) :
    argv0List = inputStr.split("\\");
    scriptName = argv0List[len(argv0List) - 1]; # get script file name self
    possibleSuf = scriptName[-3:];
    if possibleSuf == ".py" :
        scriptName = scriptName[0:-3]; # remove ".py"
    return scriptName;
        

例 2.5. extractFilename的使用范例

if __name__=="__main__":
    # for : python xxx.py -s yyy    # -> sys.argv[0]=xxx.py
    # for : xxx.py -s yyy           # -> sys.argv[0]=D:\yyy\zzz\xxx.py
    scriptSelfName = extractFilename(sys.argv[0]);
            

2.2.2. 将实体定义替换为字符:repUniNumEntToChar

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# replace the &#N; (N is digit number, N > 1) to unicode char
# eg: replace "'" with "'" in "Creepin' up on you"
def repUniNumEntToChar(text):
    unicodeP = re.compile('&#[0-9]+;');
    def transToUniChr(match): # translate the matched string to unicode char
        numStr = match.group(0)[2:-1]; # remove '&#' and ';'
        num = int(numStr);
        unicodeChar = unichr(num);
        return unicodeChar;
    return unicodeP.sub(transToUniChr, text);

        

例 2.6. repUniNumEntToChar的使用范例

infoDict['title'] = repUniNumEntToChar(infoDict['title']);
            

2.2.3. 生成全路径的URL地址:genFullUrl

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# generate the full url, which include the main url plus the parameter list
# Note: 
# normally just use urllib.urlencode is OK.
# only use this if you do NOT want urllib.urlencode convert some special chars($,:,{,},...) into %XX
def genFullUrl(mainUrl, paraDict) :
    fullUrl = mainUrl;
    fullUrl += '?';
    for i, para in enumerate(paraDict.keys()) :
        if(i == 0):
            # first para no '&'
            fullUrl += str(para) + '=' + str(paraDict[para]);
        else :
            fullUrl += '&' + str(para) + '=' + str(paraDict[para]);
    return fullUrl;
        

例 2.7. genFullUrl的使用范例

# Note: here not use urllib.urlencode to encode para, 
#       for the encoded result will convert some special chars($,:,{,},...) into %XX
paraDict = {
    'asyn'          :   '1',
    'thread_id_enc' :   '',
    'start'         :   '',
    'count'         :   '',
    'orderby_type'  :   '0',
};
paraDict['thread_id_enc'] = str(threadIdEnc);
paraDict['start'] = str(startCmtIdx);
paraDict['count'] = str(reqCmtNum);
paraDict['t'] = str(cmtReqTime);
    
mainUrl = "http://hi.baidu.com/cmt/spcmt/get_thread";
getCmtUrl = genFullUrl(mainUrl, paraDict);
            

2.2.4. 判断两个URL地址是否相似:urlIsSimilar

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# check whether two url is similar
# note: input two url both should be str type
def urlIsSimilar(url1, url2) :
    isSim = False;

    url1 = str(url1);
    url2 = str(url2);

    slashList1 = url1.split('/');
    slashList2 = url2.split('/');
    lenS1 = len(slashList1);
    lenS2 = len(slashList2);

    # all should have same structure
    if lenS1 != lenS2 :
        # not same sturcture -> must not similar
        isSim = False;
    else :
        sufPos1 = url1.rfind('.');
        sufPos2 = url2.rfind('.');
        suf1 = url1[(sufPos1 + 1) : ];
        suf2 = url2[(sufPos2 + 1) : ];
        # at least, suffix should same
        if (suf1 == suf2) : 
            lastSlashPos1 = url1.rfind('/');
            lastSlashPos2 = url2.rfind('/');
            exceptName1 = url1[:lastSlashPos1];
            exceptName2 = url2[:lastSlashPos2];
            # except name, all other part should same
            if (exceptName1 == exceptName2) :
                isSim = True;
            else :
                # except name, other part is not same -> not similar
                isSim = False;
        else :
            # suffix not same -> must not similar
            isSim = False;

    return isSim;
        

例 2.8. urlIsSimilar的使用范例

if urlIsSimilar(url, srcUrl) :
    isSimilar = True;
            

2.2.5. 判断一个Url地址是否和一个Url地址列表中的某个Url地址相似:findSimilarUrl

如果相似,返回True和相似的地址;

如果不相似,返回False。

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# found whether the url is similar in urlList
# if found, return True, similarSrcUrl
# if not found, return False, ''
def findSimilarUrl(url, urlList) :
    (isSimilar, similarSrcUrl) = (False, '');
    for srcUrl in urlList :
        if urlIsSimilar(url, srcUrl) :
            isSimilar = True;
            similarSrcUrl = srcUrl;
            break;
    return (isSimilar, similarSrcUrl);
        

例 2.9. findSimilarUrl的使用范例

# to check is similar, only when need check and the list it not empty
if ((gCfg['omitSimErrUrl'] == 'yes') and gVal['errorUrlList']):
    (isSimilar, simSrcUrl) = findSimilarUrl(curUrl, gVal['errorUrlList']);
    if isSimilar :
        logging.warning("  Omit process %s for similar with previous error url", curUrl);
        logging.warning("               %s", simSrcUrl);
        continue;
            

2.2.6. 去除非单词(non-word)的字符:removeNonWordChar

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# remove non-word char == only retian alphanumeric character (char+number) and underscore
# eg:
# from ag[email protected] to againinput4yeah
# from green-waste to greenwaste
def removeNonWordChar(inputString) :
    return re.sub(r"[^\w]", "", inputString); # non [a-zA-Z0-9_]
        

例 2.10. removeNonWordChar的使用范例

wxrValidUsername = removeNonWordChar(gVal['blogUser']);
wxrValidUsername = wxrValidUsername.replace("_", "");
logging.info("Generated WXR safe username is %s", wxrValidUsername);
            

2.2.7. 去除控制字符:removeCtlChr

使得处理后的字符串,在XML都是合法的了。

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# remove control character from input string
# otherwise will cause wordpress importer import failed
# for wordpress importer, if contains contrl char, will fail to import wxr
# eg:
# 1. http://againinput4.blog.163.com/blog/static/172799491201110111145259/
# content contains some invalid ascii control chars
# 2. http://hi.baidu.com/notebookrelated/blog/item/8bd88e351d449789a71e12c2.html
# 165th comment contains invalid control char: ETX
# 3. http://green-waste.blog.163.com/blog/static/32677678200879111913911/
# title contains control char:DC1, BS, DLE, DLE, DLE, DC1
def removeCtlChr(inputString) :
    validContent = '';
    for c in inputString :
        asciiVal = ord(c);
        validChrList = [
            9, # 9=\t=tab
            10, # 10=\n=LF=Line Feed=换行
            13, # 13=\r=CR=回车
        ];
        # filter out others ASCII control character, and DEL=delete
        isValidChr = True;
        if (asciiVal == 0x7F) :
            isValidChr = False;
        elif ((asciiVal < 32) and (asciiVal not in validChrList)) :
            isValidChr = False;
        
        if(isValidChr) :
            validContent += c;

    return validContent;
        

例 2.11. removeCtlChr的使用范例

# remove the control char in title:
# eg;
# http://green-waste.blog.163.com/blog/static/32677678200879111913911/
# title contains control char:DC1, BS, DLE, DLE, DLE, DC1
infoDict['title'] = removeCtlChr(infoDict['title']);
            

[提示] 关于控制字符

如果不了解什么是控制字符,请参考:ASCII字符集中的功能/控制字符

2.2.8. 将字符实体替换为Unicode数字实体:replaceStrEntToNumEnt

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# convert the string entity to unicode unmber entity
# refer: http://www.htmlhelp.com/reference/html40/entities/latin1.html
# TODO: need later use this htmlentitydefs instead following
def replaceStrEntToNumEnt(text) :
    strToNumEntDict = {
        # Latin-1 Entities
        "&nbsp;"	:   "&#160;",
        "&iexcl;"	:   "&#161;",
        "&cent;"    :   "&#162;",
        "&pound;"	:   "&#163;",
        "&curren;"	:   "&#164;",
        "&yen;"	    :   "&#165;",
        "&brvbar;"	:   "&#166;",
        "&sect;"	:   "&#167;",
        "&uml;"	    :   "&#168;",
        "&copy;"	:   "&#169;",
        "&ordf;"	:   "&#170;",
        "&laquo;"	:   "&#171;",
        "&not;"	    :   "&#172;",
        "&shy;"	    :   "&#173;",
        "&reg;"	    :   "&#174;",
        "&macr;"	:   "&#175;",
        "&deg;"	    :   "&#176;",
        "&plusmn;"	:   "&#177;",
        "&sup2;"	:   "&#178;",
        "&sup3;"	:   "&#179;",
        "&acute;"	:   "&#180;",
        "&micro;"	:   "&#181;",
        "&para;"	:   "&#182;",
        "&middot;"	:   "&#183;",
        "&cedil;"	:   "&#184;",
        "&sup1;"    :   "&#185;",
        "&ordm;"    :   "&#186;",
        "&raquo;"	:   "&#187;",
        "&frac14;"	:   "&#188;",
        "&frac12;"	:   "&#189;",
        "&frac34;"	:   "&#190;",
        "&iquest;"	:   "&#191;",
        "&Agrave;"	:   "&#192;",
        "&Aacute;"	:   "&#193;",
        "&Acirc;"	:   "&#194;",
        "&Atilde;"	:   "&#195;",
        "&Auml;"	:   "&#196;",
        "&Aring;"	:   "&#197;",
        "&AElig;"	:   "&#198;",
        "&Ccedil;"	:   "&#199;",
        "&Egrave;"	:   "&#200;",
        "&Eacute;"	:   "&#201;",
        "&Ecirc;"	:   "&#202;",
        "&Euml;"    :   "&#203;",
        "&Igrave;"	:   "&#204;",
        "&Iacute;"	:   "&#205;",
        "&Icirc;"	:   "&#206;",
        "&Iuml;"    :   "&#207;",
        "&ETH;"	    :   "&#208;",
        "&Ntilde;"	:   "&#209;",
        "&Ograve;"	:   "&#210;",
        "&Oacute;"	:   "&#211;",
        "&Ocirc;"	:   "&#212;",
        "&Otilde;"	:   "&#213;",
        "&Ouml;"	:   "&#214;",
        "&times;"	:   "&#215;",
        "&Oslash;"	:   "&#216;",
        "&Ugrave;"	:   "&#217;",
        "&Uacute;"	:   "&#218;",
        "&Ucirc;"	:   "&#219;",
        "&Uuml;"	:   "&#220;",
        "&Yacute;"	:   "&#221;",
        "&THORN;"	:   "&#222;",
        "&szlig;"	:   "&#223;",
        "&agrave;"	:   "&#224;",
        "&aacute;"	:   "&#225;",
        "&acirc;"	:   "&#226;",
        "&atilde;"	:   "&#227;",
        "&auml;"	:   "&#228;",
        "&aring;"	:   "&#229;",
        "&aelig;"	:   "&#230;",
        "&ccedil;"	:   "&#231;",
        "&egrave;"	:   "&#232;",
        "&eacute;"	:   "&#233;",
        "&ecirc;"	:   "&#234;",
        "&euml;"	:   "&#235;",
        "&igrave;"	:   "&#236;",
        "&iacute;"	:   "&#237;",
        "&icirc;"	:   "&#238;",
        "&iuml;"	:   "&#239;",
        "&eth;"	    :   "&#240;",
        "&ntilde;"	:   "&#241;",
        "&ograve;"	:   "&#242;",
        "&oacute;"	:   "&#243;",
        "&ocirc;"	:   "&#244;",
        "&otilde;"	:   "&#245;",
        "&ouml;" 	:   "&#246;",
        "&divide;"	:   "&#247;",
        "&oslash;"	:   "&#248;",
        "&ugrave;"	:   "&#249;",
        "&uacute;"	:   "&#250;",
        "&ucirc;"	:   "&#251;",
        "&uuml;"	:   "&#252;",
        "&yacute;"	:   "&#253;",
        "&thorn;"	:   "&#254;",
        "&yuml;"	:   "&#255;",
        # http://www.htmlhelp.com/reference/html40/entities/special.html
        # Special Entities
        "&quot;"    : "&#34;",
        "&amp;"     : "&#38;",
        "&lt;"      : "&#60;",
        "&gt;"      : "&#62;",
        "&OElig;"   : "&#338;",
        "&oelig;"   : "&#339;",
        "&Scaron;"  : "&#352;",
        "&scaron;"  : "&#353;",
        "&Yuml;"    : "&#376;",
        "&circ;"    : "&#710;",
        "&tilde;"   : "&#732;",
        "&ensp;"    : "&#8194;",
        "&emsp;"    : "&#8195;",
        "&thinsp;"  : "&#8201;",
        "&zwnj;"    : "&#8204;",
        "&zwj;"     : "&#8205;",
        "&lrm;"     : "&#8206;",
        "&rlm;"     : "&#8207;",
        "&ndash;"   : "&#8211;",
        "&mdash;"   : "&#8212;",
        "&lsquo;"   : "&#8216;",
        "&rsquo;"   : "&#8217;",
        "&sbquo;"   : "&#8218;",
        "&ldquo;"   : "&#8220;",
        "&rdquo;"   : "&#8221;",
        "&bdquo;"   : "&#8222;",
        "&dagger;"  : "&#8224;",
        "&Dagger;"  : "&#8225;",
        "&permil;"  : "&#8240;",
        "&lsaquo;"  : "&#8249;",
        "&rsaquo;"  : "&#8250;",
        "&euro;"    : "&#8364;",
        }

    replacedText = text;
    for key in strToNumEntDict.keys() :
        replacedText = re.compile(key).sub(strToNumEntDict[key], replacedText);
    return replacedText;

        

例 2.12. replaceStrEntToNumEnt的使用范例

line = replaceStrEntToNumEnt(line);
            

2.2.9. 将xxx=yyy转换为元祖(tuple)变量:convertToTupleVal

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# convert the xxx=yyy into tuple('xxx', yyy), then return the tuple value
# [makesure input string]
# (1) is not include whitespace
# (2) include '='
# (3) last is no ';'
# [possible input string]
# blogUserName="againinput4"
# publisherEmail=""
# synchMiniBlog=false
# publishTime=1322129849397
# publisherName=null
# publisherNickname="\u957F\u5927\u662F\u70E6\u607C"
def convertToTupleVal(equationStr) :
    (key, value) = ('', None);

    try :
        # Note:
        # here should not use split with '=', for maybe input string contains string like this:
        # http://img.bimg.126.net/photo/hmZoNQaqzZALvVp0rE7faA==/0.jpg
        # so use find('=') instead
        firstEqualPos = equationStr.find("=");
        key = equationStr[0:firstEqualPos];
        valuePart = equationStr[(firstEqualPos + 1):];

        # string type
        valLen = len(valuePart);
        if valLen >= 2 :
            # maybe string
            if valuePart[0] == '"' and valuePart[-1] == '"' :
                # is string type
                value = str(valuePart[1:-1]);
            elif (valuePart.lower() == 'null'):
                value = None;
            elif (valuePart.lower() == 'false'):
                value = False;
            elif (valuePart.lower() == 'true') :
                value = True;
            else :
                # must int value
                value = int(valuePart);
        else :
            # len=1 -> must be value
            value = int(valuePart);

        #print "Convert %s to [%s]=%s"%(equationStr, key, value);
    except :
        (key, value) = ('', None);
        print "Fail of convert the equal string %s to value"%(equationStr);

    return (key, value);
        

例 2.13. convertToTupleVal的使用范例

# (4) convert to value
for equation in equationList :
    (key, value) = convertToTupleVal(equation);
            

2.2.10. 去除列表(List)中的空值:removeEmptyInList

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# remove the empty ones in list
def removeEmptyInList(list) :
    newList = [];
    for val in list :
        if val :
            newList.append(val);
    return newList;
        

例 2.14. removeEmptyInList的使用范例

# Note: some list contain [u''], so is not meaningful, remove it here
# for only [] is empty, [u''] is not empty -> error while exporting to WXR
infoDict['tags'] = removeEmptyInList(infoDict['tags']);
            

2.2.11. 列表去重(去除重复的值):uniqueList

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# remove overlapped item in the list
def uniqueList(old_list):
    newList = []
    for x in old_list:
        if x not in newList :
            newList.append(x)
    return newList
        

例 2.15. uniqueList的使用范例

nonOverlapList = uniqueList(matchedList); # remove processed
            

2.2.12. 过滤列表(去除在b中出现的a中的某值):filterList

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# for listToFilter, remove the ones which is in listToCompare
# also return the ones which is already exist in listToCompare
def filterList(listToFilter, listToCompare) :
    filteredList = [];
    existedList = [];
    for singleOne in listToFilter : # remove processed
        if (not(singleOne in listToCompare)) :
            # omit the ones in listToCompare
            filteredList.append(singleOne);
        else :
            # record the already exist ones
            existedList.append(singleOne);
    return (filteredList, existedList);
        

例 2.16. filterList的使用范例

# remove processed and got ones that has been processed
(filteredPicList, existedList) = filterList(nonOverlapList, gVal['processedUrlList']);
            

2.2.13. 生成随机数的字符串:randDigitsStr

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# generated the random digits number string
# max digit number is 12
def randDigitsStr(digitNum = 12) :
    if(digitNum > 12):
        digitNum = 12;

    randVal = random.random();
    #print "randVal=",randVal; #randVal= 0.134248340235
    randVal = str(randVal);
    #print "randVal=",randVal; #randVal= 0.134248340235
    
    randVal = randVal.replace("0.", "");
    #print "randVal=",randVal; #randVal= 0.134248340235
    
    # if last is 0, append that 0    
    if(len(randVal)==11):
        randVal = randVal + "0";
    #print "randVal=",randVal; #randVal= 0.134248340235
    
    #randVal = randVal.replace("e+11", "");
    #randVal = randVal.replace(".", "");
    #print "randVal=",randVal; #randVal= 0.134248340235
    randVal = randVal[0 : digitNum];
    #print "randVal=",randVal; #randVal= 0.134248340235
    
    return randVal;
        

例 2.17. randDigitsStr 的使用范例

captchaUrl += str(randDigitsStr(6));
            

2.2.14. 将元组列表转换为字典变量:tupleListToDict

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# convert tuple list to dict value
# [(u'type', u'text/javascript'), (u'src', u'http://partner.googleadservices.com/gampad/google_service.js')]
# { u'type':u'text/javascript', u'src':u'http://partner.googleadservices.com/gampad/google_service.js' }
def tupleListToDict(tupleList):
    convertedDict = {};
    
    for eachTuple in tupleList:
        (key, value) = eachTuple;
        convertedDict[key] = value;
    
    return convertedDict;
        

例 2.18. tupleListToDict 的使用范例

#singleContent: name=script, attrMap=None, attrs=[(u'type', u'text/javascript'), (u'src', u'http://partner.googleadservices.com/gampad/google_service.js')]
attrsDict = tupleListToDict(singleContent.attrs);
            

2.3. 文件(file等)方面的函数

2.3.1. 将二进制数据存为文件:saveBinDataToFile

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# save binary data into file
def saveBinDataToFile(binaryData, fileToSave):
    saveOK = False;
    try:
        savedBinFile = open(fileToSave, "wb"); # open a file, if not exist, create it
        #print "savedBinFile=",savedBinFile;
        savedBinFile.write(binaryData);
        savedBinFile.close();
        saveOK = True;
    except :
        saveOK = False;
    return saveOK;
        

例 2.19. saveBinDataToFile的使用范例

# if url is invalid, then add timeout can avoid dead
respHtml = getUrlRespHtml(realUrl, useGzip=False, timeout=gConst['defaultTimeout']);
isDownOK = saveBinDataToFile(respHtml, fileToSave);
            

2.4. 网络方面的函数

2.4.1. 检查/判断/校验网络上某个文件是否有效:isFileValid

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# check file validation:
# open file url to check return info is match or not
# with exception support
# note: should handle while the file url is redirect
# eg :
# http://publish.it168.com/2007/0627/images/500754.jpg ->
# http://img.publish.it168.com/2007/0627/images/500754.jpg
# other special one:
# sina pic url: 
# http://s14.sinaimg.cn/middle/3d55a9b7g9522d474a84d&690
# http://s14.sinaimg.cn/orignal/3d55a9b7g9522d474a84d
# the real url is same with above url
def isFileValid(fileUrl) :
    fileIsValid = False;
    errReason = "Unknown error";

    try :
        #print "original fileUrl=",fileUrl;
        origFileName = fileUrl.split('/')[-1];
        #print "origFileName=",origFileName;
        
        #old: https://ie2zeq.bay.livefilestore.com/y1mo7UWr-TrmqbBhkw52I0ii__WE6l2UtMRSTZHSky66-uDxnCdKPr3bdqVrpUcQHcoJLedlFXa43bvCp_O0zEGF3JdG_yZ4wRT-c2AQmJ_TNcWvVZIXfBDgGerouWyx19WpA4I0XQR1syRJXjDNpwAbQ/IMG_5214_thumb[1].jpg
        #new: https://kxoqva.bay.livefilestore.com/y1mQlGjwNAYiHKoH5Aw6TMNhsCmX2YDR3vPKnP86snuqQEtnZgy3dHkwUvZ61Ah8zU3AGiS4whmm_ADrvxdufEAfMGo56KjLdhIbosn9F34olQ/IMG_5214_thumb%5b1%5d.jpg
        unquotedOrigFilenname = urllib.unquote(origFileName);
        #print "unquotedOrigFilenname=",unquotedOrigFilenname
        lowUnquotedOrigFilename = unquotedOrigFilenname.lower();
        #print "lowUnquotedOrigFilename=",lowUnquotedOrigFilename;
        
        resp = urllib2.urlopen(fileUrl, timeout=gConst['defaultTimeout']); # note: Python 2.6 has added timeout support.
        #print "resp=",resp;
        realUrl = resp.geturl();
        #print "realUrl=",realUrl;
        newFilename = realUrl.split('/')[-1];
        #print "newFilename=",newFilename;
        
        #http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_696e50390100ntxs.html
        unquotedNewFilename = urllib.unquote(newFilename);
        #print "unquotedNewFilename=",unquotedNewFilename;
        unquotedLowNewFilename = unquotedNewFilename.lower();
        #print "unquotedLowNewFilename=",unquotedLowNewFilename;
        
        respInfo = resp.info();
        #print "respInfo=",respInfo;
        respCode = resp.getcode();
        #print "respCode=",respCode;

        # special:
        # http://116.img.pp.sohu.com/images/blog/2007/5/24/17/24/11355bf42a9.jpg
        # return no content-length
        #contentLen = respInfo['Content-Length'];
        
        # for redirect, if returned size>0 and filename is same, also should be considered valid
        #if (origFileName == newFilename) and (contentLen > 0):
        # for redirect, if returned response code is 200(OK) and filename is same, also should be considered valid
        #if (origFileName == newFilename) and (respCode == 200):
        if (lowUnquotedOrigFilename == unquotedLowNewFilename) and (respCode == 200):
            fileIsValid = True;
        else :
            fileIsValid = False;
            
            # eg: Content-Type= image/gif, ContentTypes : audio/mpeg
            # more ContentTypes can refer: http://kenya.bokee.com/3200033.html
            contentType = respInfo['Content-Type'];
        
            errReason = "file url returned info: type=%s, len=%d, realUrl=%s"%(contentType, contentLen, realUrl);
    except urllib2.URLError,reason :
        fileIsValid = False;
        errReason = reason;
    except urllib2.HTTPError,code :
        fileIsValid = False;
        errReason = code;
    except :
        fileIsValid = False;
        errReason = "Unknown error";

    # here type(errReason)= <class 'urllib2.HTTPError'>, so just convert it to str
    errReason = str(errReason);
    return (fileIsValid, errReason);
        

例 2.20. isFileValid的使用范例

# indeed is pic, process it
(picIsValid, errReason) = isFileValid(curUrl);
            

2.4.2. 下载网络上某个文件:downloadFile

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# download from fileUrl then save to fileToSave
# with exception support
# note: the caller should make sure the fileUrl is a valid internet resource/file
def downloadFile(fileUrl, fileToSave, needReport = False) :
    isDownOK = False;
    downloadingFile = '';

    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    # note: totalFileSize -> may be -1 on older FTP servers which do not return a file size in response to a retrieval request
    def reportHook(copiedBlocks, blockSize, totalFileSize) :
        #global downloadingFile
        if copiedBlocks == 0 : # 1st call : once on establishment of the network connection
            print 'Begin to download %s, total size=%d'%(downloadingFile, totalFileSize);
        else : # rest call : once after each block read thereafter
            print 'Downloaded bytes: %d' % ( blockSize * copiedBlocks);
        return;
    #---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    try :
        if fileUrl :
            downloadingFile = fileUrl;
            if needReport :
                urllib.urlretrieve(fileUrl, fileToSave, reportHook);
            else :
                urllib.urlretrieve(fileUrl, fileToSave);
            isDownOK = True;
        else :
            print "Input download file url is NULL";
    except urllib.ContentTooShortError(msg) :
        isDownOK = False;
    except :
        isDownOK = False;

    return isDownOK;
        

例 2.21. downloadFile的使用范例

if dstPicFile and downloadFile(curUrl, dstPicFile) : 
    # replace old url with new url
            

2.4.3. (不用urlretrieve)手动从网络上下载单个文件:manuallyDownloadFile

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# manually download fileUrl then save to fileToSave
def manuallyDownloadFile(fileUrl, fileToSave) :
    isDownOK = False;
    downloadingFile = '';

    try :
        if fileUrl :
            # 1. find real address
            #print "fileUrl=",fileUrl;
            resp = urllib2.urlopen(fileUrl, timeout=gConst['defaultTimeout']);
            #print "resp=",resp;
            realUrl = resp.geturl(); # not same with original file url if redirect
            
            # if url is invalid, then add timeout can avoid dead
            respHtml = getUrlRespHtml(realUrl, useGzip=False, timeout=gConst['defaultTimeout']);
            
            isDownOK = saveBinDataToFile(respHtml, fileToSave);
        else :
            print "Input download file url is NULL";
    except urllib.ContentTooShortError(msg) :
        isDownOK = False;
    except :
        isDownOK = False;

    return isDownOK;
        

例 2.22. manuallyDownloadFile的使用范例

#if dstPicFile and downloadFile(curUrl, dstPicFile) : 
# urlretrieve in downloadFile is too slow while download QQ Space Picture
# so here use manuallyDownloadFile instead
if dstPicFile and manuallyDownloadFile(curUrl, dstPicFile) :
    # replace old url with new url
            

2.4.4. 获得Url地址的响应:getUrlResponse

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# get response from url
# note: if you have already used cookiejar, then here will automatically use it
# while using rllib2.Request
def getUrlResponse(url, postDict={}, headerDict={}, timeout=0, useGzip=False) :
    # makesure url is string, not unicode, otherwise urllib2.urlopen will error
    url = str(url);

    if (postDict) :
        postData = urllib.urlencode(postDict);
        req = urllib2.Request(url, postData);
        req.add_header('Content-Type', "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
    else :
        req = urllib2.Request(url);

    if(headerDict) :
        #print "added header:",headerDict;
        for key in headerDict.keys() :
            req.add_header(key, headerDict[key]);

    defHeaderDict = {
        'User-Agent'    : gConst['userAgentIE9'],
        'Cache-Control' : 'no-cache',
        'Accept'        : '*/*',
        'Connection'    : 'Keep-Alive',
    };

    # add default headers firstly
    for eachDefHd in defHeaderDict.keys() :
        #print "add default header: %s=%s"%(eachDefHd,defHeaderDict[eachDefHd]);
        req.add_header(eachDefHd, defHeaderDict[eachDefHd]);

    if(useGzip) :
        #print "use gzip for",url;
        req.add_header('Accept-Encoding', 'gzip, deflate');

    # add customized header later -> allow overwrite default header 
    if(headerDict) :
        #print "added header:",headerDict;
        for key in headerDict.keys() :
            req.add_header(key, headerDict[key]);

    if(timeout > 0) :
        # set timeout value if necessary
        resp = urllib2.urlopen(req, timeout=timeout);
    else :
        resp = urllib2.urlopen(req);
    
    return resp;
        

例 2.23. getUrlResponse的使用范例

resp = getUrlResponse(url, postDict, headerDict, timeout, useGzip);
respHtml = resp.read();
            

2.4.5. 获得Url返回的HTML网页(源码)内容:getUrlRespHtml

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# get response html==body from url
#def getUrlRespHtml(url, postDict={}, headerDict={}, timeout=0, useGzip=False) :
def getUrlRespHtml(url, postDict={}, headerDict={}, timeout=0, useGzip=True) :
    resp = getUrlResponse(url, postDict, headerDict, timeout, useGzip);
    respHtml = resp.read();
    if(useGzip) :
        #print "---before unzip, len(respHtml)=",len(respHtml);
        respInfo = resp.info();
        
        # Server: nginx/1.0.8
        # Date: Sun, 08 Apr 2012 12:30:35 GMT
        # Content-Type: text/html
        # Transfer-Encoding: chunked
        # Connection: close
        # Vary: Accept-Encoding
        # ...
        # Content-Encoding: gzip
        
        # sometime, the request use gzip,deflate, but actually returned is un-gzip html
        # -> response info not include above "Content-Encoding: gzip"
        # eg: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/comment_730793bf010144j7_3.html
        # -> so here only decode when it is indeed is gziped data
        if( ("Content-Encoding" in respInfo) and (respInfo['Content-Encoding'] == "gzip")) :
            respHtml = zlib.decompress(respHtml, 16+zlib.MAX_WBITS);
            #print "+++ after unzip, len(respHtml)=",len(respHtml);

    return respHtml;
        

例 2.24. getUrlRespHtml的使用范例:不带额外参数

respHtml = getUrlRespHtml(url);
            

例 2.25. getUrlRespHtml的使用范例:带额外参数

modifyUrl = gVal['blogEntryUrl'] + "/blog/submit/modifyblog";
#logging.debug("Modify Url is %s", modifyUrl);

#http://hi.baidu.com/wwwhaseecom/blog/item/79188d1b4fa36f068718bf79.html
foundSpBlogID = re.search(r"blog/item/(?P<spBlogID>\w+?).html", url);
if(foundSpBlogID) :
    spBlogID = foundSpBlogID.group("spBlogID");
    logging.debug("Extracted spBlogID=%s", spBlogID);
else :
    modifyOk = False;
    errInfo = "Can't extract post spBlogID !";
    return (modifyOk, errInfo);

newPostContentGb18030 = newPostContentUni.encode("GB18030");
categoryGb18030 = infoDict['category'].encode("GB18030");
titleGb18030 = infoDict['title'].encode("GB18030");

postDict = {
    "bdstoken"      : gVal['spToken'],
    "ct"            : "1",
    "mms_flag"      : "0",
    "cm"            : "2",
    "spBlogID"      : spBlogID,
    "spBlogCatName_o": categoryGb18030, # old catagory
    "edithid"       : "",
    "previewImg"    : "",
    "spBlogTitle"   : titleGb18030,
    "spBlogText"    : newPostContentGb18030,
    "spBlogCatName" : categoryGb18030, # new catagory
    "spBlogPower"   : "0",
    "spIsCmtAllow"  : "1",
    "spShareNotAllow":"0",
    "spVcode"       : "",
    "spVerifyKey"   : "",
}
        
headerDict = {
    # 如果不添加Referer,则返回的html则会出现错误:"数据添加的一般错误"
    "Referer" : gVal['blogEntryUrl'] + "/blog/modify/" + spBlogID,
    }
respHtml = getUrlRespHtml(modifyUrl, postDict, headerDict);
            

2.4.6. 检查(所返回的)cookieJar中,是否所有的cookie都存在:checkAllCookiesExist

因为成功登录某网页后,一般都会有对应的cookie返回,所以常用此函数去判断是否成功登录某网页。

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# check all cookies in cookiesDict is exist in cookieJar or not
def checkAllCookiesExist(cookieNameList, cookieJar) :
    cookiesDict = {};
    for eachCookieName in cookieNameList :
        cookiesDict[eachCookieName] = False;
    
    allCookieFound = True;
    for cookie in cookieJar :
        if(cookie.name in cookiesDict) :
            cookiesDict[cookie.name] = True;
    
    for eachCookie in cookiesDict.keys() :
        if(not cookiesDict[eachCookie]) :
            allCookieFound = False;
            break;

    return allCookieFound;
        

例 2.26. checkAllCookiesExist的使用范例

#http://www.darlingtree.com/wordpress/archives/242
gVal['cj'] = cookielib.CookieJar();

opener = urllib2.build_opener(urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(gVal['cj']));
urllib2.install_opener(opener);
resp = urllib2.urlopen(baiduSpaceEntryUrl);

loginBaiduUrl = "https://passport.baidu.com/?login";
#username=%D0%C4%C7%E9%C6%DC%CF%A2%B5%D8&password=xxx&mem_pass=on
postDict = {
    'username'  : username,
    'password'  : password,
    'mem_pass'  : 'on',
    };
resp = getUrlResponse(loginBaiduUrl, postDict);

# check whether the cookie is OK
cookieNameList = ["USERID", "PTOKEN", "STOKEN"];
loginOk = checkAllCookiesExist(cookieNameList, gVal['cj']);
if (not loginOk) :
    logging.error("Login fail for not all expected cookies exist !");
    return loginOk;
            

2.5. 字符编码相关的函数

2.5.1. 判断字符串是否只包含ASCII字符:strIsAscii

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# depend on chardet
# check whether the strToDect is ASCII string
def strIsAscii(strToDect) :
    isAscii = False;
    encInfo = chardet.detect(strToDect);
    if (encInfo['confidence'] > 0.9) and (encInfo['encoding'] == 'ascii') :
        isAscii = True;
    return isAscii;
        

例 2.27. strIsAscii的使用范例

if(not strIsAscii(extractedBlogUser)) :
    # if is: http://hi.baidu.com/资料收集
    # then should quote it, otherwise later output to WXR will fail !
    extractedBlogUser = urllib.quote(extractedBlogUser);
            

2.5.2. 获得(最有可能的)字符串的字符编码类型:getStrPossibleCharset

此代码中是判断是否大于0.5来决定是否是可能的字符串类型。使用者可根据自己需要,改为自己想要的概率,比如0.8等。

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# get the possible(possiblility > 0.5) charset of input string
def getStrPossibleCharset(inputStr) :
    possibleCharset = "ascii";
    #possibleCharset = "UTF-8";
    encInfo = chardet.detect(inputStr);
    #print "encInfo=",encInfo;
    if (encInfo['confidence'] > 0.5):
        possibleCharset = encInfo['encoding'];
    return possibleCharset;
    #return encInfo['encoding'];
        

例 2.28. getStrPossibleCharset的使用范例

validCharset = getStrPossibleCharset(dataJsonStr);
logging.debug("Now try use the detected charset %s to decode it again", validCharset);
            

2.6. 语言翻译方面的函数

2.6.1. 翻译(中文)字符串(为英文字符串):translateString

此函数支持多种语言。

如无额外参数,则默认是将中文翻译为英文。

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# depend on BeautifulSoup
# translate strToTranslate from fromLanguage to toLanguage
# return the translated unicode string
# some frequently used language abbrv:
# Chinese Simplified:   zh-CN
# Chinese Traditional:  zh-TW
# English:              en
# German:               de
# Japanese:             ja
# Korean:               ko
# French:               fr    
# more can be found at: 
# http://code.google.com/intl/ru/apis/language/translate/v2/using_rest.html#language-params
def translateString(strToTranslate, fromLanguage="zh-CN", toLanguage="en"):
    transOK = False;
    translatedStr = strToTranslate;
    transErr = '';

    try :
        # following refer: http://python.u85.us/viewnews-335.html
        postDict = {'hl':'zh-CN', 'ie':'UTF-8', 'text':strToTranslate, 'langpair':"%s|%s"%(fromLanguage, toLanguage)};
        googleTranslateUrl = 'http://translate.google.cn/translate_t';
        resp = getUrlRespHtml(googleTranslateUrl, postDict);
        #logging.debug("---------------google translate resp html:\n%s", resp);
    except urllib2.URLError,reason :
        transOK = False;
        transErr = reason;
    except urllib2.HTTPError,code :
        transOK = False;
        transErr = code;
    else :
        soup = BeautifulSoup(resp);
        resultBoxSpan = soup.find(id='result_box');
        if resultBoxSpan and resultBoxSpan.span and resultBoxSpan.span.string :
            transOK = True;
            #translatedStr = resultBoxSpan.span.string.encode('utf-8');
            googleRetTransStr = resultBoxSpan.span.string;
            translatedStr = unicode(googleRetTransStr);
            
            # just record some special one:
            # from:
            #【转载】[SEP4020  u-boot]  start.s  注释
            # to:
            # The 【reserved] [the SEP4020 u-boot] start.s comment
        else :
            transOK = False;
            transErr = "can not extract translated string from returned result";

    transErr = str(transErr);
    
    if transOK :
        return (transOK, translatedStr);
    else :
        return (transOK, transErr);
        

例 2.29. translateString的使用范例

(transOK, translatedStr) = translateString(strToTrans, "zh-CN", "en");
            

2.6.2. 将中文字符串翻译为英文字符串:transZhcnToEn

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# translate the Chinese Simplified(Zh-cn) string to English(en)
def transZhcnToEn(strToTrans) :
    translatedStr = strToTrans;
    transOK = False;
    transErr = '';

    if strIsAscii(strToTrans) :
        transOK = True;
        translatedStr = strToTrans;
    else :
        (transOK, translatedStr) = translateString(strToTrans, "zh-CN", "en");

    return (transOK, translatedStr);
        

例 2.30. transZhcnToEn的使用范例

(transOK, translatedName) = transZhcnToEn(nameUtf8);
            

2.7. Beautifulsoup相关的函数

2.7.1. 从soup的Contents中移除某个(带某种属性的)标签: removeSoupContentsTagAttr

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
#remove specific tag[key]=value in soup contents (list of BeautifulSoup.Tag/BeautifulSoup.NavigableString)
# eg:
# (1)
# removeSoupContentsTagAttr(soupContents, "p", "class", "cc-lisence")
# to remove <p class="cc-lisence" style="line-height:180%;">......</p>, from
# [
# u'\n',
# <p class="cc-lisence" style="line-height:180%;">......</p>,
# u'\u5bf9......\u3002',
#  <p>跑题了。......我争取。</p>,
#  <br />,
#  u'\n',
#  <div class="clear"></div>,
# ]
# (2)
#contents = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(contents, "div", "class", "addfav", True);
# remove <div class="addfav">.....</div> from:
# [u'\n',
# <div class="postFooter">......</div>, 
# <div style="padding-left:2em">
    # ...
    # <div class="addfav">......</div>
    # ...
# </div>,
 # u'\n']
def removeSoupContentsTagAttr(soupContents, tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal="", recursive=False) :
    global gVal;

    #print "in removeSoupContentsClass";

    #print "[",gVal['currentLevel'],"] input tagName=",tagName," tagAttrKey=",tagAttrKey," tagAttrVal=",tagAttrVal;
    
    #logging.debug("[%d] input, %s[%s]=%s, soupContents:%s", gVal['currentLevel'],tagName,tagAttrKey,tagAttrVal, soupContents);
    #logging.debug("[%d] input, %s[%s]=%s", gVal['currentLevel'],tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal);
    
    filtedContents = [];
    for singleContent in soupContents:
        #logging.debug("current singleContent=%s",singleContent);
    
        #logging.info("singleContent=%s", singleContent);
        #print "type(singleContent)=",type(singleContent);
        #print "singleContent.__class__=",singleContent.__class__;
        #if(isinstance(singleContent, BeautifulSoup)):
        #if(BeautifulSoup.Tag == singleContent.__class__):
        #if(isinstance(singleContent, instance)):
        #if(isinstance(singleContent, BeautifulSoup.Tag)):
        if(isinstance(singleContent, Tag)):
            #print "isinstance true";
            
            #logging.debug("singleContent: name=%s, attrMap=%s, attrs=%s",singleContent.name, singleContent.attrMap, singleContent.attrs);
            # if( (singleContent.name == tagName)
                # and (singleContent.attrMap)
                # and (tagAttrKey in singleContent.attrMap)
                # and ( (tagAttrVal and (singleContent.attrMap[tagAttrKey]==tagAttrVal)) or (not tagAttrVal) ) ):
                # print "++++++++found tag:",tagName,"[",tagAttrKey,"]=",tagAttrVal,"\n in:",singleContent;
                # #print "dir(singleContent)=",dir(singleContent);
                # logging.debug("found %s[%s]=%s in %s", tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal, singleContent.attrMap);

            # above using attrMap, but attrMap has bug for:
            #singleContent: name=script, attrMap=None, attrs=[(u'type', u'text/javascript'), (u'src', u'http://partner.googleadservices.com/gampad/google_service.js')]
            # so use attrs here
            #logging.debug("singleContent: name=%s, attrs=%s", singleContent.name, singleContent.attrs);
            attrsDict = tupleListToDict(singleContent.attrs);
            if( (singleContent.name == tagName)
                and (singleContent.attrs)
                and (tagAttrKey in attrsDict)
                and ( (tagAttrVal and (attrsDict[tagAttrKey]==tagAttrVal)) or (not tagAttrVal) ) ):
                #print "++++++++found tag:",tagName,"[",tagAttrKey,"]=",tagAttrVal,"\n in:",singleContent;
                #print "dir(singleContent)=",dir(singleContent);
                logging.debug("found %s[%s]=%s in %s", tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal, attrsDict);
            else:
                if(recursive):
                    #print "-----sub call";
                    gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] + 1;
                    #logging.debug("[%d] now will filter %s[%s=]%s, for singleContent.contents=%s", gVal['currentLevel'], tagName,tagAttrKey,tagAttrVal, singleContent.contents);
                    #logging.debug("[%d] now will filter %s[%s=]%s", gVal['currentLevel'], tagName,tagAttrKey,tagAttrVal);
                    filteredSingleContent = singleContent;
                    filteredSubContentList = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(filteredSingleContent.contents, tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal, recursive);
                    gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] -1;
                    filteredSingleContent.contents = filteredSubContentList;
                    #logging.debug("[%d] after filter, sub contents=%s", gVal['currentLevel'], filteredSingleContent);
                    #logging.debug("[%d] after filter contents", gVal['currentLevel']);
                    filtedContents.append(filteredSingleContent);
                else:
                    #logging.debug("not recursive, append:%s", singleContent);
                    #logging.debug("not recursive, now append singleContent");
                    filtedContents.append(singleContent);
            
            # name = singleContent.name;
            # if(name == tagName):
                # print "name is equal, name=",name;
                
                # attrMap = singleContent.attrMap;
                # print "attrMap=",attrMap;
                # if attrMap:
                    # if tagAttrKey in attrMap:
                        # print "tagAttrKey=",tagAttrKey," in attrMap";
                        # if(tagAttrVal and (attrMap[tagAttrKey]==tagAttrVal)) or (not tagAttrVal):
                            # print "++++++++found tag:",tagName,"[",tagAttrKey,"]=",tagAttrVal,"\n in:",singleContent;
                            # #print "dir(singleContent)=",dir(singleContent);
                            # logging.debug("found tag, tagAttrVal=%s, %s[%s]=%s", tagAttrVal, tagName, tagAttrVal, attrMap[tagAttrKey]);
                        # else:
                            # print "key in attrMap, but value not equal";
                            # if(recursive):
                                # print "-----sub call 111";
                                # gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] + 1;
                                # singleContent = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(singleContent.contents, tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal, recursive);
                                # gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] -1;
                            # filtedContents.append(singleContent);
                    # else:
                        # print "key not in attrMap";
                        # if(recursive):
                            # print "-----sub call 222";
                            # gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] + 1;
                            # singleContent = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(singleContent.contents, tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal, recursive);
                            # gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] -1;
                        # filtedContents.append(singleContent);
                # else:
                    # print "attrMap is None";
                    # if(recursive):
                        # print "-----sub call 333";
                        # gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] + 1;
                        # singleContent = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(singleContent.contents, tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal, recursive);
                        # gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] -1;
                    # filtedContents.append(singleContent);
            # else:
                # print "name not equal, name=",name," tagName=",tagName;
                # if(recursive):
                    # print "-----sub call 444";
                    # gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] + 1;
                    # singleContent = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(singleContent.contents, tagName, tagAttrKey, tagAttrVal, recursive);
                    # gVal['currentLevel'] = gVal['currentLevel'] -1;
                # filtedContents.append(singleContent);
        else:
            # is BeautifulSoup.NavigableString
            #print "not BeautifulSoup instance";
            filtedContents.append(singleContent);

    #print "filterd contents=",filtedContents;
    #logging.debug("[%d] before return, filtedContents=%s", gVal['currentLevel'], filtedContents);
    
    return filtedContents;

        

例 2.31. removeSoupContentsTagAttr 的使用范例

foundPostbody = soup.find(attrs={"class":"postBody"});
contents = foundPostbody.contents;
contents = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(contents, "p", "class", "cc-lisence", True); #版权声明
contents = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(contents, "div", "class", "relpost", True); #历史上的今天, 相关帖子
contents = removeSoupContentsTagAttr(contents, "div", "class", "addfav", True); #收藏到
            

2.7.2. 查找contents中第一个NavigableString: findFirstNavigableString

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# find the first BeautifulSoup.NavigableString from soup contents
def findFirstNavigableString(soupContents):
    firstString = None;
    for eachContent in soupContents:
        # note here must import NavigableString from BeautifulSoup
        if(isinstance(eachContent, NavigableString)): 
            firstString = eachContent;
            break;

    return firstString;
        

2.7.3. 将soup的contents转换为Unicode字符串: soupContentsToUnicode

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# convert soup contents into unicode string
def soupContentsToUnicode(soupContents) :
    #method 1
    mappedContents = map(CData, soupContents);
    #print "mappedContents OK";
    #print "type(mappedContents)=",type(mappedContents); #type(mappedContents)= <type 'list'>
    contentUni = ''.join(mappedContents);
    #print "contentUni=",contentUni;
    
    # #method 2
    # originBlogContent = "";
    # logging.debug("Total %d contents for original soup contents:", len(soupContents));
    # for i, content in enumerate(soupContents):
        # if(content):
            # logging.debug("[%d]=%s", i, content);
            # originBlogContent += unicode(content);
        # else :
            # logging.debug("[%d] is null", i);
    
    # logging.debug("---method 1: map and join---\n%s", contentUni);
    # logging.debug("---method 2: enumerate   ---\n%s", originBlogContent);
    
    # # -->> seem that two method got same blog content
    
    #logging.debug("soup contents to unicode string OK");
    return contentUni;
        

例 2.32. soupContentsToUnicode 的使用范例

postmetadataUni = soupContentsToUnicode(foundPostmetadata.contents);
            

参考书目