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Time Delay in Linux kernel

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7.3.2. Short Delays

When a device driver needs to deal with latencies in its hardware, the delays involved are usually a few dozen microseconds at most. In this case, relying on the clock tick is definitely not the way to go.

The kernel functions ndelay, udelay, and mdelay serve well for short delays, delaying execution for the specified number of nanoseconds, microseconds, or milliseconds respectively.[2] Their prototypes are:

[2] The u in udelay represents the Greek letter mu and stands for micro.

#include <linux/delay.h>

<font color="#0000ff"><strong>void ndelay(unsigned long nsecs);

void udelay(unsigned long usecs);

void mdelay(unsigned long msecs);</strong></font>

The actual implementations of the functions are in <asm/delay.h>, being architecture-specific, and sometimes build on an external function. Every architecture implements udelay, but the other functions may or may not be defined; if they are not, <linux/delay.h> offers a default version based on udelay. In all cases, the delay achieved is at least the requested value but could be more; actually, no platform currently achieves nanosecond precision, although several ones offer submicrosecond precision. Delaying more than the requested value is usually not a problem, as short delays in a driver are usually needed to wait for the hardware, and the requirements are to wait for at least a given time lapse.

The implementation of udelay (and possibly ndelay too) uses a software loop based on the processor speed calculated at boot time, using the integer variable loops_per_jiffy. If you want to look at the actual code, however, be aware that the x86 implementation is quite a complex one because of the different timing sources it uses, based on what CPU type is running the code.

To avoid integer overflows in loop calculations, udelay and ndelay impose an upper bound in the value passed to them. If your module fails to load and displays an unresolved symbol, _ _bad_udelay, it means you called udelay with too large an argument. Note, however, that the compile-time check can be performed only on constant values and that not all platforms implement it. As a general rule, if you are trying to delay for thousands of nanoseconds, you should be using udelay rather than ndelay; similarly, millisecond-scale delays should be done with mdelay and not one of the finer-grained functions.

It’s important to remember that the three delay functions are busy-waiting; other tasks can’t be run during the time lapse. Thus, they replicate, though on a different scale, the behavior of jitbusy. Thus, these functions should only be used when there is no practical alternative.

There is another way of achieving millisecond (and longer) delays that does not involve busy waiting. The file <linux/delay.h> declares these functions:

<strong><font color="#0000ff">void msleep(unsigned int millisecs);

unsigned long msleep_interruptible(unsigned int millisecs);

void ssleep(unsigned int seconds)</font></strong>

The first two functions puts the calling process to sleep for the given number of millisecs. A call to msleep is uninterruptible; you can be sure that the process sleeps for at least the given number of milliseconds. If your driver is sitting on a wait queue and you want a wakeup to break the sleep, use msleep_interruptible. The return value from msleep_interruptible is normally 0; if, however, the process is awakened early, the return value is the number of milliseconds remaining in the originally requested sleep period. A call to ssleep puts the process into an uninterruptible sleep for the given number of seconds.

In general, if you can tolerate longer delays than requested, you should use schedule_timeout, msleep, or ssleep.

From:<Linux Device Driver 3>

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