最新消息:20210816 当前crifan.com域名已被污染,为防止失联,请关注(页面右下角的)公众号


工作和技术 crifan 1113浏览 0评论


Application-Specific Integrated Circuit. A piece of custom-designed hardware in a chip.

address bus (地址总线)
A set of electrical lines connected to the processor and all of the peripherals withwhich itcommunicates. The address bus is used by the processor to select aspecific memory location or register within a particular peripheral. If the address bus contains n electrical lines, the processor can uniquely address up to 2^n such locations.

application software(应用软件)
Describes software modules specific to a particular embedded project. Theapplication software is unlikely to be reusable across embedded platforms, simplybecause each embedded system has a different application.


A software development tool that translates human-readable assembly languageprograms into machine-language instructions that the processor can understandand execute.

assembly language(汇编语言)
A human-readable form of a processor"s instruction set. Most processor-specific functions must be written in assembly language.

See board support package.
见board support package。

binary semaphore(二元信号)
A type of semaphore with just two states. Also called a mutex.

board support package(板卡支持包)
Part of a software package that is processor or platform-dependent. Typically,sample source code for the board support package is provided by the package developer. The sample code must be modified as necessary, compiled, and linked with the remainder of the software package.

bond-out processor (外合处理器)
A special version of a processor that has some of the internal signals brought out to external pins. A bond-out processor is most often found within an emulator and is never intended to be used in a production system.

Breakpoint (断点)
A location in a program at which execution is to be stopped and control of the processor switched to the debugger. Mechanisms for creating and removing breakpoints are provided by most debugging tools.

Complex Instruction Set Computer. Describes the architecture of a processor family. CISC processors generally feature variable-length instructions, multiple addressing formats, and contain only a small number of general-purpose registers. Intel"s 80×86 family is the quintessential example of CISC. Contrast with RISC.

Central Processing Unit. The part of a processor that executes instructions.

A software development tool that translates high-level language programs into the machine-language instructions that a particular processor can understand and execute.

context (上下文)
The current state of the processor"s registers and flags.

context switch(上下文切换)
The process of switching from one task to another in a multitasking operating system. A context switch involves saving the context of the running task and restoring the previously-saved context of the other. The piece of code that does this is necessarily processor-specific.

counting semaphore(计数信号)
A type of semaphore that is used to track multiple resources of the same type. An attempt to take a counting semaphore is blocked only if all of the available resources are in use. Contrast with binary semaphore.

critical section(临界段)
A block of code that must be executed in sequence and without interruption to guarantee correct operation of the software. See also race condition.

A compiler that runs on a different platform than the one for which it produces object code. A cross-compiler runs on a host computer and produces object code for the target.

Direct Memory Access. A technique for transferring data directly between two peripherals (usually memory and an I/O device) with only minimal intervention by the processor. DMA transfers are managed by a third peripheral called a DMA controller.

Dynamic Random-Access Memory. A type of RAM that maintains its contents only as long as the data stored in the device is refreshed at regular intervals. The refresh cycles are usually performed by a peripheral called a DRAM controller.

Data bus(数据总线)
A set of electrical lines connected to the processor and all of the peripherals with which it communicates. When the processor wants to read (write) the contents of a memory location or register within a particular peripheral, it sets the address bus pins appropriately and receives (transmits) the contents on the data bus.

The time at which a particular set of computations must be completed. See also real-time system.

An unwanted software situation in which an entire set of tasks is blocked, waiting for an event that only a task within the same set can cause. If a deadlock occurs, the only solution is to reset the hardware. However, it is usually possible to prevent deadlocks altogether by following certain software design practices.

debug monitor(除错监视程序)
A piece of embedded software that has been designed specifically for use as a debugging tool. It usually resides in ROM and communicates with a debugger via a serial port or network connection. The debug monitor provides a set of primitive commands to view and modify memory locations and registers, create and remove breakpoints, and execute your program. The debugger combines these primitives to fulfill higher-level requests like program download and single-step.

A software development tool used to test and debug embedded software. The debugger runs on a host computer and connects to the target through a serial port or network connection. Using a debugger you can download software to the target for immediate execution. You can also set breakpoints and examine the contents of specific memory locations and registers.

device driver(设备驱动程序)
A software module that hides the details of a particular peripheral and provides a high-level programming interface to it.

device programmer(设备编程器)
A tool for programming non-volatile memories and other electrically-programmable devices. Typically, the programmable device is inserted into a socket on the device programmer and the contents of a memory buffer are then transferred into it.

digital signal processor(数字信号处理器)
A device that is similar to a microprocessor, except that the internal CPU has been optimized for use in applications involving discrete-time signal processing. In addition to standard microprocessor instructions, DSPs usually support a set of complex instructions to perform common signal-processing computations quickly.Common DSP families are TI"s 320Cxx and Motorola"s 5600x series.


Electrically Erasable, Programmable Read-Only Memory. (Pronounced"Double-E"-PROM.) A type of ROM that can be erased electronically.

Erasable, Programmable Read-Only Memory. A type of ROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. Once erased, an EPROM can be reprogrammed with the help of a device programmer.

embedded system(嵌入式系统)
A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function. In some cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or product, as is the case of an anti-lock braking system in a car. Contrast with general-purpose computer.

Short for In-Circuit Emulator (ICE). A debugging tool that takes the placeof-emulates-the processor on your target board. Emulators frequently incorporate a special "bond-out" version of the target processor that allows you to observe and record its internal state as your program is executing
. 在线仿真器的简写。一个在你的目标板上放置仿真的处理器的调试工具。仿真器经常和一目标处理器的一种“外合”版本合在一起,这个版本的的处理器充许你运行程序时观察和记录它的内部状态。

A file containing object code that is ready for execution on the target. All that remains is to place the object code into a ROM or download it via a debugging tool.

Embedded software that is stored as object code within a ROM. This name is most common among the users of digital signal processors.

flash memory (闪存)
A RAM-ROM hybrid that can be erased and rewritten under software control. Such devices are divided into blocks, called sectors, that are individually-erasable. Flash memory is common in systems that require nonvolatile data storage at very low cost. In some cases, a large fash memory may even be used instead of a disk-drive.


general-purpose computer(通用计算机)
A combination of computer hardware and software that serves as a
general-purpose computing platform. For example, a personal computer. Contrast with embedded system.
See high-level language.

An area of memory that is used for dynamic memory allocation. Calls to malloc and free and the C++ operators new and delete result in run-time manipulation of the heap.

high-level language(高级语言)
A language, such as C or C++, that is processor-independent. When programming in a high-level language, it is possible to concentrate on algorithms and applications without worrying about the details of a particular processor.

A general-purpose computer that communicates with the target via a serial port or network connection. This term is usually used to distinguish the computer on which the debugger is running from the embedded system that is being developed.

In-Circuit Emulator. See emulator.

Input/Output. The interface between a processor and the world around it. The simplest examples are switches (inputs) and LEDs (outputs).

I/O device(IO设备)
A piece of hardware that interfaces between the processor and the outside world. Common examples are switches and LEDs, serial ports, and network controllers.

I/O map(I/O映射)
A table or diagram containing the name and address range of each peripheral addressable by the processor within the I/O space. I/O maps are a helpful aid in getting to know the target.

I/O space(I/O空间)
A special memory region provided by some processors and generally reserved for the attachment of I/O devices. Memory locations and registers within an I/O space can be accessed only via special instructions. For example, processors in the 80×86 family have special I/O space instructions called in and out. Contrast with memory space.
一个由处理器提供的特殊内存区域,一般为为I/O设备的附件保留。在I/O空间的内存位置和寄存器只能通过特殊的指定进行访问。例如:80X86家族的处理器有叫做in / out的特殊的I/O空间指令。相对内存空间而言。

See interrupt service routine.

instruction pointer(指令指针)
A register in the processor that contains the address of the next instruction to be executed. Also known as a program counter.

An asynchronous electrical signal from a peripheral to the processor. When the peripheral asserts this signal, we say that an interrupt occurs. When an interrupt occurs, the current state of the processor is saved and an interrupt service routine is executed. When the interrupt service routine exits, control of the processor is returned to whatever part of the software was previously running.

interrupt latency(中断延迟)
The amount of time between the assertion of an interrupt and the start of the associated interrupt service routine.
interrupt service routine(中断服务程序)
A piece of software executed in response to a particular interrupt.

interrupt type(中断类型)
A unique number associated with each interrupt.

interrupt vector (中断向量)
The address of an interrupt service routine.

interrupt vector table(中断向量表)
A table containing interrupt vectors and indexed by interrupt type. This table contains the processor"s mapping between interrupts and interrupt service routines and must be initialized by the programmer.

intertask communication(进程间通讯)
A mechanism used by tasks and interrupt service routines to share information and synchronize their access to shared resources. The most common building blocks of intertask communication are semaphores and mutexes.

An essential part of any multitasking operating system, the kernel contains just the scheduler and context-switch routine.

A software development tool that accepts one or more object files as input and outputs a relocatable program. The linker is thus run after all of the source files have been compiled or assembled.

A software development tool that assigns physical addresses to the relocatable program produced by the linker. This is the last step in the preparation of software for execution by an embedded system and the resulting file is called an executable. In some cases, the locator"s function may be hidden within the linker.

logic analyzer(逻辑分析仪)
A hardware debugging tool that can be used to capture the logic levels (0 or 1) of dozens, or even hundreds, of electrical signals in real-time. Logic analyzers can be quite helpful for debugging hardware problems and complex processor-peripheral interactions.

转载请注明:在路上 » 【转】嵌入式系统词汇表-1




  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址
84 queries in 0.110 seconds, using 20.62MB memory