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【教程】模拟登陆网站 之 Python版(内含两种版本的完整的可运行的代码)

Crawl_EmulateLogin crifan 13616浏览 0评论

之前已经介绍过了网络相关的一些基础知识了:

【整理】关于抓取网页,分析网页内容,模拟登陆网站的逻辑/流程和注意事项

以及,简单的网页内容抓取,用Python是如何实现的:

【教程】抓取网并提取网页中所需要的信息 之 Python版

现在接着来介绍,如何通过Python来实现基本的模拟网站登陆的流程。

不过,此处需要介绍一下此文前提:

假定你已经看完了:

【整理】关于抓取网页,分析网页内容,模拟登陆网站的逻辑/流程和注意事项

了解了基本的网络相关基本概念;

看完了:

【总结】浏览器中的开发人员工具(IE9的F12和Chrome的Ctrl+Shift+I)-网页分析的利器

知道了如何使用IE9的F12等工具去分析网页执行的过程。

此处已模拟登陆百度首页:

http://www.baidu.com/

为例,说明如何通过Python模拟登陆网站。


1.模拟登陆网站之前,需要搞清楚,登陆该网站的内部执行逻辑

此想要通过程序,python代码,实现模拟登陆百度首页之前。

你自己本身先要搞懂,本身登陆该网站,内部的逻辑是什么样的。

 

而关于如何利用工具,分析出来,百度首页登录的内部逻辑过程,参见:

【教程】手把手教你如何利用工具(IE9的F12)去分析模拟登陆网站(百度首页)的内部逻辑过程

 

2.然后才是用对应的语言,此处是Python去实现,模拟登陆的逻辑

看懂了上述用F12分析出来的百度首页的登陆的内部逻辑过程,接下来,用Python代码去实现,相对来说,就不是很难了。

 

注:

(1)关于在Python中如何利用cookie,不熟悉的,先去看:

【已解决】Python中如何获得访问网页所返回的cookie

【已解决】Python中实现带Cookie的Http的Post请求

(2)对于正则表达式不熟悉的,去参考:

正则表达式学习心得

(3)对python的正则表达式不熟悉的,可参考:

【教程】详解Python正则表达式

 

此处,再把分析出来的流程,贴出来,以便方便和代码对照:

顺序访问地址访问类型发送的数据需要获得/提取的返回的值
1http://www.baidu.com/GET返回的cookie中的BAIDUID
2https://passport.baidu.com/v2/api/?getapi&class=login&tpl=mn&tangram=trueGET包含BAIDUID这个cookie从返回的html中提取出token的值
3https://passport.baidu.com/v2/api/?loginPOST一堆的post data,其中token的值是之前提取出来的需要验证返回的cookie中,是否包含BDUSS,PTOKEN,STOKEN,SAVEUSERID

 

然后,最终就可以写出相关的,用于演示模拟登录百度首页的Python代码了。

【版本1:Python实现模拟登陆百度首页的完整代码 之 精简版】

这个是相对精简的一个版本:

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Function:   Used to demostrate how to use Python code to emulate login baidu main page: http://www.baidu.com/
Note:       Before try to understand following code, firstly, please read the related articles:
            (1)【整理】关于抓取网页,分析网页内容,模拟登陆网站的逻辑/流程和注意事项
            https://www.crifan.com/summary_about_flow_process_of_fetch_webpage_simulate_login_website_and_some_notice/
            (2) 【教程】手把手教你如何利用工具(IE9的F12)去分析模拟登陆网站(百度首页)的内部逻辑过程
            https://www.crifan.com/use_ie9_f12_to_analysis_the_internal_logical_process_of_login_baidu_main_page_website/
            (3) 【教程】模拟登陆网站 之 Python版
            https://www.crifan.com/emulate_login_website_using_python
Version:    2012-11-06
Author:     Crifan
"""

import re;
import cookielib;
import urllib;
import urllib2;
import optparse;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# check all cookies in cookiesDict is exist in cookieJar or not
def checkAllCookiesExist(cookieNameList, cookieJar) :
    cookiesDict = {};
    for eachCookieName in cookieNameList :
        cookiesDict[eachCookieName] = False;
    
    allCookieFound = True;
    for cookie in cookieJar :
        if(cookie.name in cookiesDict) :
            cookiesDict[cookie.name] = True;
    
    for eachCookie in cookiesDict.keys() :
        if(not cookiesDict[eachCookie]) :
            allCookieFound = False;
            break;

    return allCookieFound;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# just for print delimiter
def printDelimiter():
    print '-'*80;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# main function to emulate login baidu
def emulateLoginBaidu():
    print "Function: Used to demostrate how to use Python code to emulate login baidu main page: http://www.baidu.com/";
    print "Usage: emulate_login_baidu_python.py -u yourBaiduUsername -p yourBaiduPassword";
    printDelimiter();

    # parse input parameters
    parser = optparse.OptionParser();
    parser.add_option("-u","--username",action="store",type="string",default='',dest="username",help="Your Baidu Username");
    parser.add_option("-p","--password",action="store",type="string",default='',dest="password",help="Your Baidu password");
    (options, args) = parser.parse_args();
    # export all options variables, then later variables can be used
    for i in dir(options):
        exec(i + " = options." + i);

    printDelimiter();
    print "[preparation] using cookieJar & HTTPCookieProcessor to automatically handle cookies";
    cj = cookielib.CookieJar();
    opener = urllib2.build_opener(urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj));
    urllib2.install_opener(opener);

    printDelimiter();
    print "[step1] to get cookie BAIDUID";
    baiduMainUrl = "http://www.baidu.com/";
    resp = urllib2.urlopen(baiduMainUrl);
    #respInfo = resp.info();
    #print "respInfo=",respInfo;
    for index, cookie in enumerate(cj):
        print '[',index, ']',cookie;

    printDelimiter();
    print "[step2] to get token value";
    getapiUrl = "https://passport.baidu.com/v2/api/?getapi&class=login&tpl=mn&tangram=true";
    getapiResp = urllib2.urlopen(getapiUrl);
    #print "getapiResp=",getapiResp;
    getapiRespHtml = getapiResp.read();
    #print "getapiRespHtml=",getapiRespHtml;
    #bdPass.api.params.login_token='5ab690978812b0e7fbbe1bfc267b90b3';
    foundTokenVal = re.search("bdPass\.api\.params\.login_token='(?P<tokenVal>\w+)';", getapiRespHtml);
    if(foundTokenVal):
        tokenVal = foundTokenVal.group("tokenVal");
        print "tokenVal=",tokenVal;

        printDelimiter();
        print "[step3] emulate login baidu";
        staticpage = "http://www.baidu.com/cache/user/html/jump.html";
        baiduMainLoginUrl = "https://passport.baidu.com/v2/api/?login";
        postDict = {
            #'ppui_logintime': "",
            'charset'       : "utf-8",
            #'codestring'    : "",
            'token'         : tokenVal, #de3dbf1e8596642fa2ddf2921cd6257f
            'isPhone'       : "false",
            'index'         : "0",
            #'u'             : "",
            #'safeflg'       : "0",
            'staticpage'    : staticpage, #http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2Fcache%2Fuser%2Fhtml%2Fjump.html
            'loginType'     : "1",
            'tpl'           : "mn",
            'callback'      : "parent.bdPass.api.login._postCallback",
            'username'      : username,
            'password'      : password,
            #'verifycode'    : "",
            'mem_pass'      : "on",
        };
        postData = urllib.urlencode(postDict);
        # here will automatically encode values of parameters
        # such as:
        # encode http://www.baidu.com/cache/user/html/jump.html into http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2Fcache%2Fuser%2Fhtml%2Fjump.html
        #print "postData=",postData;
        req = urllib2.Request(baiduMainLoginUrl, postData);
        # in most case, for do POST request, the content-type, is application/x-www-form-urlencoded
        req.add_header('Content-Type', "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
        resp = urllib2.urlopen(req);
        #for index, cookie in enumerate(cj):
        #    print '[',index, ']',cookie;
        cookiesToCheck = ['BDUSS', 'PTOKEN', 'STOKEN', 'SAVEUSERID'];
        loginBaiduOK = checkAllCookiesExist(cookiesToCheck, cj);
        if(loginBaiduOK):
            print "+++ Emulate login baidu is OK, ^_^";
        else:
            print "--- Failed to emulate login baidu !"
    else:
        print "Fail to extract token value from html=",getapiRespHtml;

if __name__=="__main__":
    emulateLoginBaidu();

 

【版本2:Python实现模拟登陆百度首页的完整代码 之 crifanLib.py版】

这个是另外一个版本,其中利用到我自己的python库:crifanLib.py

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Function:   Used to demostrate how to use Python code to emulate login baidu main page: http://www.baidu.com/
            Use the functions from crifanLib.py
Note:       Before try to understand following code, firstly, please read the related articles:
            (1)【整理】关于抓取网页,分析网页内容,模拟登陆网站的逻辑/流程和注意事项
            https://www.crifan.com/summary_about_flow_process_of_fetch_webpage_simulate_login_website_and_some_notice/
            (2) 【教程】手把手教你如何利用工具(IE9的F12)去分析模拟登陆网站(百度首页)的内部逻辑过程
            https://www.crifan.com/use_ie9_f12_to_analysis_the_internal_logical_process_of_login_baidu_main_page_website/
            (3) 【教程】模拟登陆网站 之 Python版
            https://www.crifan.com/emulate_login_website_using_python
Version:    2012-11-07
Author:     Crifan
Contact:    admin (at) crifan.com
"""

import re;
import cookielib;
import urllib;
import urllib2;
import optparse;

#===============================================================================
# following are some functions, extracted from my python library: crifanLib.py
# for the whole crifanLib.py:
# online browser: http://code.google.com/p/crifanlib/source/browse/trunk/python/crifanLib.py
# download      : http://code.google.com/p/crifanlib/downloads/list
#===============================================================================

import zlib;

gConst = {
    'constUserAgent' : 'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/5.0; SLCC2; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.5.30729; .NET CLR 3.0.30729; Media Center PC 6.0; InfoPath.3; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E)',
    #'constUserAgent' : "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:15.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/15.0.1",
}

################################################################################
# Network: urllib/urllib2/http
################################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# get response from url
# note: if you have already used cookiejar, then here will automatically use it
# while using rllib2.Request
def getUrlResponse(url, postDict={}, headerDict={}, timeout=0, useGzip=False) :
    # makesure url is string, not unicode, otherwise urllib2.urlopen will error
    url = str(url);

    if (postDict) :
        postData = urllib.urlencode(postDict);
        req = urllib2.Request(url, postData);
        req.add_header('Content-Type', "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
    else :
        req = urllib2.Request(url);

    if(headerDict) :
        #print "added header:",headerDict;
        for key in headerDict.keys() :
            req.add_header(key, headerDict[key]);

    defHeaderDict = {
        'User-Agent'    : gConst['constUserAgent'],
        'Cache-Control' : 'no-cache',
        'Accept'        : '*/*',
        'Connection'    : 'Keep-Alive',
    };

    # add default headers firstly
    for eachDefHd in defHeaderDict.keys() :
        #print "add default header: %s=%s"%(eachDefHd,defHeaderDict[eachDefHd]);
        req.add_header(eachDefHd, defHeaderDict[eachDefHd]);

    if(useGzip) :
        #print "use gzip for",url;
        req.add_header('Accept-Encoding', 'gzip, deflate');

    # add customized header later -> allow overwrite default header 
    if(headerDict) :
        #print "added header:",headerDict;
        for key in headerDict.keys() :
            req.add_header(key, headerDict[key]);

    if(timeout > 0) :
        # set timeout value if necessary
        resp = urllib2.urlopen(req, timeout=timeout);
    else :
        resp = urllib2.urlopen(req);
    
    return resp;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# get response html==body from url
#def getUrlRespHtml(url, postDict={}, headerDict={}, timeout=0, useGzip=False) :
def getUrlRespHtml(url, postDict={}, headerDict={}, timeout=0, useGzip=True) :
    resp = getUrlResponse(url, postDict, headerDict, timeout, useGzip);
    respHtml = resp.read();
    if(useGzip) :
        #print "---before unzip, len(respHtml)=",len(respHtml);
        respInfo = resp.info();
        
        # Server: nginx/1.0.8
        # Date: Sun, 08 Apr 2012 12:30:35 GMT
        # Content-Type: text/html
        # Transfer-Encoding: chunked
        # Connection: close
        # Vary: Accept-Encoding
        # ...
        # Content-Encoding: gzip
        
        # sometime, the request use gzip,deflate, but actually returned is un-gzip html
        # -> response info not include above "Content-Encoding: gzip"
        # eg: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/comment_730793bf010144j7_3.html
        # -> so here only decode when it is indeed is gziped data
        if( ("Content-Encoding" in respInfo) and (respInfo['Content-Encoding'] == "gzip")) :
            respHtml = zlib.decompress(respHtml, 16+zlib.MAX_WBITS);
            #print "+++ after unzip, len(respHtml)=",len(respHtml);

    return respHtml;

################################################################################
# Cookies
################################################################################

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# check all cookies in cookiesDict is exist in cookieJar or not
def checkAllCookiesExist(cookieNameList, cookieJar) :
    cookiesDict = {};
    for eachCookieName in cookieNameList :
        cookiesDict[eachCookieName] = False;
    
    allCookieFound = True;
    for cookie in cookieJar :
        if(cookie.name in cookiesDict) :
            cookiesDict[cookie.name] = True;
    
    for eachCookie in cookiesDict.keys() :
        if(not cookiesDict[eachCookie]) :
            allCookieFound = False;
            break;

    return allCookieFound;

#===============================================================================

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# just for print delimiter
def printDelimiter():
    print '-'*80;

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# main function to emulate login baidu
def emulateLoginBaidu():
    print "Function: Used to demostrate how to use Python code to emulate login baidu main page: http://www.baidu.com/";
    print "Usage: emulate_login_baidu_python.py -u yourBaiduUsername -p yourBaiduPassword";
    printDelimiter();

    # parse input parameters
    parser = optparse.OptionParser();
    parser.add_option("-u","--username",action="store",type="string",default='',dest="username",help="Your Baidu Username");
    parser.add_option("-p","--password",action="store",type="string",default='',dest="password",help="Your Baidu password");
    (options, args) = parser.parse_args();
    # export all options variables, then later variables can be used
    for i in dir(options):
        exec(i + " = options." + i);

    printDelimiter();
    print "[preparation] using cookieJar & HTTPCookieProcessor to automatically handle cookies";
    cj = cookielib.CookieJar();
    opener = urllib2.build_opener(urllib2.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj));
    urllib2.install_opener(opener);

    printDelimiter();
    print "[step1] to get cookie BAIDUID";
    baiduMainUrl = "http://www.baidu.com/";
    resp = getUrlResponse(baiduMainUrl);
    # here you should see: BAIDUID
    for index, cookie in enumerate(cj):
        print '[',index, ']',cookie;

    printDelimiter();
    print "[step2] to get token value";
    getapiUrl = "https://passport.baidu.com/v2/api/?getapi&class=login&tpl=mn&tangram=true";
    getapiRespHtml = getUrlRespHtml(getapiUrl);
    #bdPass.api.params.login_token='5ab690978812b0e7fbbe1bfc267b90b3';
    foundTokenVal = re.search("bdPass\.api\.params\.login_token='(?P<tokenVal>\w+)';", getapiRespHtml);
    if(foundTokenVal):
        tokenVal = foundTokenVal.group("tokenVal");
        print "tokenVal=",tokenVal;

        printDelimiter();
        print "[step3] emulate login baidu";
        staticpage = "http://www.baidu.com/cache/user/html/jump.html";
        baiduMainLoginUrl = "https://passport.baidu.com/v2/api/?login";
        postDict = {
            #'ppui_logintime': "",
            'charset'       : "utf-8",
            #'codestring'    : "",
            'token'         : tokenVal, #de3dbf1e8596642fa2ddf2921cd6257f
            'isPhone'       : "false",
            'index'         : "0",
            #'u'             : "",
            #'safeflg'       : "0",
            'staticpage'    : staticpage, #http%3A%2F%2Fwww.baidu.com%2Fcache%2Fuser%2Fhtml%2Fjump.html
            'loginType'     : "1",
            'tpl'           : "mn",
            'callback'      : "parent.bdPass.api.login._postCallback",
            'username'      : username,
            'password'      : password,
            #'verifycode'    : "",
            'mem_pass'      : "on",
        };
        loginRespHtml = getUrlRespHtml(baiduMainLoginUrl, postDict);
        cookiesToCheck = ['BDUSS', 'PTOKEN', 'STOKEN', 'SAVEUSERID'];
        loginBaiduOK = checkAllCookiesExist(cookiesToCheck, cj);
        if(loginBaiduOK):
            print "+++ Emulate login baidu is OK, ^_^";
        else:
            print "--- Failed to emulate login baidu !"
    else:
        print "Fail to extract token value from html=",getapiRespHtml;

if __name__=="__main__":
    emulateLoginBaidu();

此版本的目的在于,方便后来人使用网络相关的函数,不用关心内部细节。

并且,相关的函数,也可以供以后再次利用。

注:关于crifanLib.py:

在线浏览:crifanLib.py

下载:crifanLib_2012-11-07.7z

 

 

上述两种版本的代码,对应的输出,都是:

D:\tmp\tmp_dev_root\python\emulate_login_baidu_python>emulate_login_baidu_python.py -u crifan -p xxxxxx
Function: Used to demostrate how to use Python code to emulate login baidu main page: http://www.baidu.com/
Usage: emulate_login_baidu_python.py -u yourBaiduUsername -p yourBaiduPassword
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[preparation] using cookieJar & HTTPCookieProcessor to automatically handle cookies
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[step1] to get cookie BAIDUID
[ 0 ] <Cookie BAIDUID=8D85C6528FDF7B5F49C746A18524495B:FG=1 for .baidu.com/>
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[step2] to get token value
tokenVal= 4d3f004bbe3e6f0cfa435abd38dd9fec
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[step3] emulate login baidu
+++ Emulate login baidu is OK, ^_^

 

【总结】

总的来说,其实分析网站登陆的过程,所涉及的内部逻辑,其实比用代码写出来要难多了。

而分析网站登陆过程的大概逻辑,要比用工具去具体的分析,要重要的多。

而这一堆的过程,之前自己折腾时,也正是苦于无完整的教程,所以,才有现在的一堆的帖子,来从头到尾的解释,从概念,到逻辑,到分析,到实现的整个过程。

全部都看完,应该对这部分内容,就大概有个了解的。

剩下的东西,就是实际的操练了,就是自己折腾的过程了。

希望上述所有的概念,逻辑,方法,代码,对你有用。

转载请注明:在路上 » 【教程】模拟登陆网站 之 Python版(内含两种版本的完整的可运行的代码)

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